English Culture, 1660-1830

Business, Clubs, Societies, Periodicals

English East India Company, founded 1599
Coffee Houses, first opened 1652
Chocolate Shops, first opened 1657
The Royal Society, founded 1660
Vauxhall Gardens, opened 1661
Drury Lane Theater, founded 1663
Chelsea Hospital, founded 1692
Bank of England, founded 1694
Bank of Scotland, founded 1695
London Stock Exchange, founded 1698
Society for the Promoting of Christian Knowledge, founded 1698
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, founded 1701
Royal Ascot, begun 1711
The White Horse Pub, London, c. 1712-present day
Boxing Champion of England, begun 1719
The Racing Calendar, started 1727
Covent Garden, Royal Opera House, opened 1732
Ranelagh Gardens, opened 1742
Sotheby's Auction House, founded 1744
Bow Street Runners, founded 1748
The British Museum, founded 1753
Broadwood Piano Makers, founded 1753
The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce, founded 1754
Axminster Carpet Company, founded 1755 [See also The History of Carpet page]
Wedgwood China Company, founded 1760
Brooks's Club, founded 1764
Almack's Assembly Rooms, first opened 1765
Tattersall's Horse Auction Yard, opened 1766
Christies' Auction House, founded 1766
The Royal Academy, founded 1768
Astley's Royal Amphitheatre, begun as a riding school 1768
Bass Ale, founded 1777
Royal Society of Edinburgh, founded 1783 The Royal Mail Coach System, begun 1784 Photos of Royal Mail Coach
The Times, founded 1785
Belfast Royal Academy, founded 1785
Phillips Auctioneers, founded 1796
Cadbury Limited, founded 1824
The Windsor Castle Inn/Pub, founded 1828

Customs/Games/New Plants/Foods

Inoculation for small pox
Restoration Clothing
indentured or bonded servants {see the note on this page}
Boxing Day
opera on opera dress, c. 1790s
tea drinking
gaming hells
fox hunting
horse racing
dueling on French dueling
coaching inns A Scottish Coaching Inn
British Food
plum pudding
bubble and squeak
Morris Dancing
Plough Monday
Shrove Tuesday
Swan Upping


Robert Boyle (1627-1691), chemist
Christopher Wren (1632-1723),architect [see also this site and this one too on one of his buildings]
Claude Duval (1643-70), highwayman [see this site]
William Hogarth (1679-1764), painter
George Frederick Handel (1685-1759), composer
Antonio "Canaletto" Canal (1697-1768), painter
Dick Turpin (1706-39), highwayman [see this site]
Thomas Arne (1710-1778), songwriter
David Garrick (1717-1779), actor
Thomas Chippendale (1718-1779), furniture maker
Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792), painter
Henry Cavendish (1731-1810), scientist
George Romney (1734-1802), painter
Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782), musician
Angelica Kauffman (1740-1807), painter
Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770), writer
Elisabeth Vignee Le Brun (1755-1842), painter [See also this site]
Sarah Kemble Siddons (1755-1831), actress
James Gillray (1757-1815), caricaturist
Auguste Vestris (1760-1842),dancer essay on one of his famous students
Sir Edmund Hoyle (d. 1769), card player and gamester